Entries by Dr Wade Grindle

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Current Status of Ketamine and Related Therapies for Mood and Anxiety Disorders

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Despite a plethora of established treatments, less than one-third of individuals with MDD achieve stable remission of symptoms. Given limited efficacy and significant lag time to onset of therapeutic action among conventional antidepressants, interest has shifted to treatments that act outside of the monoamine […]

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The secret life of ketamine

It rains for 164 days out of each year in Portland, Oregon, a city renowned for its wet weather. So it seems an unlikely destination for patients hoping to alleviate their depression. Yet, over the past two years, almost a hundred people have visited a small nondescript clinic in this damp corner of Northwestern United […]

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How does ketamine elicit a rapid antidepressant response?

A single sub-psychotomimetic dose of ketamine, an ionotropic glutamatergic n-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, produces a fast-acting antidepressant response in patients suffering from major depressive disorder. Depressed patients report alleviation of core symptoms within two hours of a single low-dose intravenous infusion of ketamine with effects lasting up to two weeks. The rapidity of ketamine action […]

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Antidepressant effects of ketamine: mechanisms underlying fast-acting novel antidepressants

Newer antidepressants are needed for the many individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) that do not respond adequately to treatment and because of a delay of weeks before the emergence of therapeutic effects. Recent evidence from clinical trials shows that the NMDA antagonist ketamine is a revolutionary novel antidepressant because it acts rapidly and is […]

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A randomized trial of an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist in treatment-resistant major depression

Existing therapies for major depression have a lag of onset of action of several weeks, resulting in considerable morbidity. Exploring pharmacological strategies that have rapid onset of antidepressant effects within a few days and that are sustained would have an enormous impact on patient care. Converging lines of evidence suggest the role of the glutamatergic […]